A tiamina também conhecida como vitamina B1, umas das vitaminas do complexo B que ajudam o corpo a converter os carboidratos em energia. A vitamina B1 é encontrada em muitos alimentos, incluindo leveduras, grãos de cereais, feijão, nozes e carne.

As vitaminas do complexo B são necessárias para um fígado, pele, cabelo e olhos saudáveis. Eles também ajudam o sistema nervoso a funcionar adequadamente e são necessários para uma boa função cerebral.

Todas as vitaminas B são solúveis em água, o que significa que o corpo não as armazena.

Como outras vitaminas do complexo B, a tiamina às vezes é chamada de vitamina “anti-stress” porque atua no fortalecimento do sistema imunológico e melhorar a capacidade do corpo para suportar condições estressantes. É chamado B1 porque foi a primeira vitamina B descoberta.

A tiamina é encontrada em plantas e animais e desempenha um papel crucial em certas reações metabólicas. Seu corpo precisa dele para formar trifosfato de adenosina (ATP), que cada célula do corpo usa para energia.

Deficiência de Tiamina

É raro ser deficiente em tiamina, embora os alcoólatras, pessoas com doença de Crohn, anorexia e aqueles que sofram diálise renal possam ser deficientes. Os sintomas da deficiência de tiamina são:

  • Dor de cabeça
  • Náusea
  • Fadiga
  • Irritabilidade
  • Depressão
  • Desconforto abdominal

Pessoas com deficiência de tiamina também têm problemas para digerir carboidratos. Isso permite que uma substância chamada ácido pirúvico se acumule na corrente sanguínea, causando perda de alerta mental, dificuldade de respirar e danos cardíacos, uma doença conhecida como beribéri.

Beribéri

O uso mais importante da tiamina é tratar o beribéri, que é causado por não ter a vitamina B1 suficiente em sua dieta. Os sintomas incluem:

  • Sensação de inchaço, formigamento ou queimação nas mãos e pés
  • Confusão
  • Problema de respiração por causa do fluido nos pulmões
  • Movimentos oculares descontrolados (nistagmo)

As pessoas do mundo desenvolvido normalmente não desenvolvem beribéri porque alimentos como cereais e pães são fortificados com vitamina B1.

Síndrome de Wernicke-Korsakoff

A síndrome de Wernicke-Korsakoff é uma desordem cerebral causada pela deficiência de tiamina. Wernicke-Korsakoff é realmente dois distúrbios. A doença de Wernicke envolve danos aos nervos no sistema nervoso central e periférico. Muitas vezes é causada por desnutrição devido ao alcoolismo. A síndrome de Korsakoff é caracterizada por problemas de memória e danos nos nervos. Altas doses de vitamina B1 podem melhorar a coordenação muscular e confusão, mas raramente melhora a perda de memória.

Cataratas

Evidências preliminares sugerem que a tiamina, juntamente com outros nutrientes, pode reduzir o risco de desenvolver catarata. Pessoas com muitas proteínas e vitaminas A, B1, B2 e B3 (ou niacina) em sua dieta são menos propensas a desenvolver cataratas. A obtenção de vitaminas do complexo vitaminas C, E (tocoferol) e B, particularmente B1, B2, vitamina B9 (ácido fólico) e B12, podem ainda proteger a lente dos olhos do desenvolvimento de catarata. Mais pesquisas são necessárias.

Doença de Alzheimer

A falta de tiamina pode causar demência na síndrome de Wernicke-Korsakoff. Assim, os pesquisadores especularam sua relação com a doença de Alzheimer. O uso oral desta vitamina demonstrou melhorar a função cognitiva de pacientes com Alzheimer.

Depressão

Baixos níveis de tiamina estão associados à depressão. Em um estudo realizado em idosos chineses, os níveis de tiamina pobres foram associados com maior risco de depressão.

Fontes dietéticas

A maioria dos alimentos contém pequenas quantidades de tiamina. Grandes quantidades podem ser encontradas em:

  • Carne de porco
  • Carne
  • Aves
  • Carne organica

Outras boas fontes dietéticas de tiamina incluem:

  • Cereais integrais ou enriquecidos e arroz
  • Legumes
  • Germe do trigo
  • Farelo
  • levedura de cerveja
  • Nozes
  • Melaço

Onde encontrar

A vitamina B1 pode ser encontrada em multivitaminas (incluindo gotas de mascotes e líquidos), vitaminas do complexo B, ou pode ser vendido individualmente. Está disponível em uma variedade de formas, incluindo comprimidos e pastilhas. Também pode ser rotulado como cloridrato de tiamina ou mononitrato de tiamina.

Dose diária

Tal como acontece com todos os medicamentos e suplementos, consulte o seu médico antes de administrar suplementos de vitamina B1 a uma criança.

As recomendações diárias para a vitamina B1 dietética, de acordo com a Academia Nacional de Ciências, são as seguintes:

Pediátrica

  • Recém-nascidos, 6 meses: 0,2 mg (ingestão adequada)
  • Bebés, 7 meses a 1 ano: 0,3 mg (ingestão adequada)
  • Crianças, 1 a 3 anos: 0,5 mg (RDA)
  • Crianças, 4 a 8 anos: 0,6 mg (RDA)
  • Crianças, 9 a 13 anos: 0,9 mg (RDA)
  • Homens, 14 a 18 anos: 1,2 mg (RDA)
  • Mulheres, 14 a 18 anos: 1 mg (RDA)

Adulto

  • Homens com 19 anos ou mais: 1,2 mg (RDA)
  • Mulheres, 19 anos ou mais: 1,1 mg (RDA)
  • Mulheres grávidas ou amamentando: 1,4 mg (RDA)

Os médicos determinam as doses apropriadas para condições como o beriberi e a síndrome de Wernicke-Korsakoff. Os médicos dão tiamina por via intravenosa para a síndrome de Wernicke-Korsakoff.

Uma dose diária de 50 a 100 mg é frequentemente tomada como suplemento. Mas você deve falar com seu médico antes de tomar uma grande quantidade.

Precauções

Por causa do potencial de efeitos colaterais e interações com medicamentos, você deve tomar suplementos dietéticos apenas sob a supervisão de um profissional de saúde com conhecimento.

A tiamina geralmente é segura. Doses muito altas podem causar dor de estômago.

Tomar qualquer uma das vitaminas do grupo B durante um longo período de tempo pode resultar em desequilíbrio de outras vitaminas B importantes. Por esse motivo, você pode querer tomar uma vitamina do complexo B, que inclui todas as vitaminas do complexo B.

Possíveis Interações

Se você está tomando algum dos seguintes medicamentos, não deve usar vitamina B1 sem antes falar com seu médico.

Digoxina: estudos de laboratório sugerem que a digoxina, uma medicação usada para tratar doenças cardíacas, pode reduzir a capacidade das células cardíacas de absorver e usar vitamina B1. Isto pode ser particularmente verdadeiro quando a digoxina é combinada com furosemida (Lasix, um diurético de alça).

Diuréticos (pílulas de água): diuréticos, particularmente a furosemida (Lasix), que pertence a uma classe chamada diuréticos de laço, pode reduzir os níveis de vitamina B1 no corpo. É possível que outros diuréticos possam ter o mesmo efeito. Se tomar um diurético, pergunte ao seu médico se precisar de um suplemento de tiamina.

Phenytoin (Dilantin): evidências preliminares sugerem que algumas pessoas que tomam fenitoína têm níveis mais baixos de tiamina no sangue, o que pode contribuir para os efeitos colaterais da droga. No entanto, isso não é verdade para todas as pessoas que tomam fenitoína. Se você tomar fenitoína, pergunte ao seu médico se precisar de um suplemento de tiamina.

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